Technology Innovations in the Smelting of Chromite Ore ...

The balance of the energy requirement in the KWG process developed at XPS is provided by natural gas, which has a higher calorific value than coal, Consumption is very conservatively estimated at 80% of that of the overall Premus process, an estimated 136 kg gas per ton FeCr. This is based on: The lower operating temperature of the KWG process

COAL CHARACTERISTICS - Purdue University

India – FeCr industry characteristics (often need to purchase coal or oil to generate it) • Low labour costs, but mining restrictions becoming strict • Average production costs quite high, but integrated players competitive, greatly assisted by weak rupee in 2013

Ferroalloys - Glencore

Keywords: Pyrometallurgy, furnace, Xstrata, ferrochromium, Premus Technology Abstract – The presentation will give a basic overview of Xstrata Alloys. Included will be a brief history of the Alloys division as well as of each plant within the division. The Xstrata chrome plants utilise a wide variety of production processes,

Xstrata to spend US$710 million on new smelter ...

Oct 20, 2010· One of the world's biggest producers of ferrochrome, the company revealed in a statement here that it had approved the second phase of its Lion ferrochrome complex. "The use of our energy-efficient Premus technology for the expansion project will expand Xstrata's cost leadership in a global environment of escalating energy costs," said ...

Ferrochrome - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The expansion will utilise Xstrata's proprietary energy-efficient Premus technology, and will reduce the overall cost of the Venture's total ferrochrome production by around 6%. Xstrata's Premus technology consumes approximately a third less electricity than other available smelting technologies – an industry leading average of between ...

New S African venture to lead world's ferrochrome output ...

• World-leading technology and processes: • 22 furnaces spread across five smelting facilities in South Africa, with a capacity of 2.34 million tonnes per annum. Three technologies are employed; conventional, Outokumpu and Premus. • Premus technology is the most sophisticated ferrochrome production technology

4 Countries with the World's Highest Chromium Production

Ferrochrome. Most of the world's ferrochrome is used in the production of corrosion resistant steel, more specifically stainless steel. Manganese alloys. Most of the world's manganese is used in carbon steel production. Ferrovanadium. Vanadium alloys are used to strengthen specialty steels for use in niche and high-end applications. It is also ...

Merafe Resources Ltd Review – Phani Investors

Chromium is a hard and brittle gray metal that resists tarnish and has a high melting point.. Those characteristics make it a key element in steel production. In fact, chromium producers sell ...

Impact of Ferrochrome Ash and Gypsum Powder on …

Nov 15, 2012· chromite flow chart – Coal processing system Machine for sale. 6 Flow chart for chromite ore-refining,.. 31 7 Flow chart of ferrochrome production by the electric arc furnace process, ... South African ferrochrome producer Xstrata is using Premus technology at its Lion ferrochrome plant in Steelpoort to ...

Vinetia Taffa - Process Engineer - Vuselela Energy (Pty ...

work. Premus process has been found to be the lowest-cost and most energy-efficient ferrochrome smelting technology. The process is designed to reduce electrical energy consumption during smelting by partly reducing pelletized chromite ores in a rotary kiln using energy obtained from coal pulverization and hot gases generated from

Eskom reform urgent to restore ferrochrome potential

Aug 18, 2017· Lion II ferrochrome plant. The 360 000 tonnes per annum (tpa) Phase II of the Lion ferrochrome plant (Lion II) has increased the Glencore-Merafe Chrome Venture's total installed capacity to over 2.3 million tpa. This smelter, based on the energy efficient Premus technology. Financial capital

T2IB2352 Merafe AR FRONT

The Premus process, which is a substantial modification of the highly-efficient closed furnace and pelletising technology, is expected to deliver operating costs around 20% below alternative ...

Xstrata Alloys in Profile

Lion 360 ktpa FeCr – 2 furnaces Premus – kilns and closed furnaces Xstrata-Merafe Chrome Venture operations 1. Horizon mine 2. Rustenburg ferrochrome plant 3. Boshoek ferrochrome plant and Boshoek mine 4. Wonderkop ferrochrome plant and Bokamoso plant 5. Waterval mine 6. Kroondal and Marikana mines 7. Thorncliffe mine 8. Lion ferrochrome ...

Wastewater Treatment for the Mining Industry | Fluence

Premus process has been found to be the lowest-cost and most energy-efficient ferrochrome smelting technology. The process is designed to reduce electrical energy consumption during smelting by partly reducing pelletized chromite ores in a rotary kiln using energy obtained from coal pulverization and hot gases generated from the closed ...

Developments in production costs and competitiveness in ...

Premus process has been found to be the lowest-cost and most energy-efficient ferrochrome smelting technology. The process is designed to reduce electrical energy consumption during smelting by partly reducing pelletized chromite ores in a rotary kiln using energy obtained from coal pulverization and hot gases generated from the closed ...

Equipments Used To Mine Ferro Chrome

Jigging recovery of chromium slag process of ferrochrome jigging process. Chromite is divided into high carbon ferrochrome including charging FeCr with different carbon content C10 medium carbon ferrochrome C4.0 low carbon ferrochrome C0.5 micro carbon ferrochromium C0.15 etc. Commonly used silicon chromium alloys ferrochrome nitride etc. get price

Merafe Resources Limited

• Production costs very varied between plants – driven by technology and capacity utilisation • Depressed production and low capacity utilisation in 2012 and 2013 due to poor market fundamentals – this has impacted on unit costs South Africa – FeCr industry characteristics

THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADVANTAGES OF XSTRATA'S …

Apr 01, 2004· Free Online Library: New S African venture to lead world's ferrochrome output: a proposed joint venture will make a new South African entity the largest ferrochrome producer in the world. The demand for ferrocrome, which is used in the manufacture of stainless steel, is bound to rise as the demand for steel, especially in China, increases.

Lion Smelter Visit

Oct 04, 2017· Sustainable wastewater technologies minimize mining's environmental footprint. Mining for some minerals, including coal, has been diminishing due to increased financial, social, and environmental pressures, both in the United States and abroad.

KWG Resources Inc. | (KWG: CSE) | Reducing energy ...

Due to the fact that Premus is one of the most tech nologically advanced and comp etitive processes used today in the production of ferrochrome it was the process selected for Xstrata's new ferrochrome facility, Project Lion, that is due to be commissioned in the third quarter of 2006 in the Steelpoort Valley in Mpumulanga, South Africa. 1.

ferrochrome - Traducción al español – Linguee

Aug 18, 2017· Lion II ferrochrome plant. The 360 000 tonnes per annum (tpa) Phase II of the Lion ferrochrome plant (Lion II) has increased the Glencore-Merafe Chrome Venture's total installed capacity to over 2.3 million tpa. This smelter, based on the energy efficient Premus technology. Financial capital

Flow Chart Ferrochrome Processing - Panola Heavy Industries

premus technology ferrochrome coal characteristics Premus technology is the most sophisticated ferrochrome production technology currently in existence globally, and is used at the Lion and Lydenburg plants The, COAL MILLING SCREENING GRANULATION LUMPY SLAG CRUSHING CHAR, COKE, ANTHRACITE FLUXES LUMP REDUCTANTS >>Chat …

Scope of the report Forward looking statements This report covers the economic, environmental and social performance of the Merafe Group for the 12 month


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