Smelting - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Nickel, a naturally occurring element, is ubiquitous in the environment, especially in the divalent state. It was identified in the middle of the 18th century and its extraction process developed in the middle of the 19th century. In Finland, primary nickel production takes place by the direct high-grade nickel matte flash smelting process.

CHEE3020 - Nickel Smelting Project - Engineering ...

Processing of PGM Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates in a Sustainable Way by Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process. Satu Jyrkonen. Outotec (Finland), Kuparitie 10; FIN‐28330 Pori, Finland. Search for more papers by this author. Kaarlo Haavanlammi.

Nickel Smelting and Refining - IFC

Industrial nickel slag from the direct Outotec nickel flash smelting (DON) process was mixed with both synthetic and industrial battery scrap. The end products of the slag-scrap mixtures after reduction at 1400 °C in a CH 4 (5 vol %)-N 2 atmosphere were an Ni–Co–Cu–Fe metal alloy and FeO x –SiO 2 slag.

Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates | Request PDF

AN INTRODUCTION TO OUTOTEC FLASH SMELTING With flexibility, low energy consumption, high sulfur capture, and excellent economy of scale, Outotec Flash Smelting technology is the world's leading method for copper and nickel smelting. More than half of the world's primary copper and nickel is produced using Outotec's proprietary process.

Processing of PGM Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates in a ...

The goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of trace elements (Ge, Co, Se, Pb and Sn) between nickel matte and fayalite slag in the Direct Outotec Nickel Flash Smelting – process. The experiments were conducted with a method that includes equilibration and quenching of the sample, followed by an EPMA-analysis.

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

Direct Blister Flash Smelting is a natural choice for higher-grade copper concentrates due to its lower capital investment costs. Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) This process enables high-grade nickel matte to be produced using a single flash smelting furnace. It allows

Impact of MgO and K 2 O on Slag-Nickel Matte Equilibria ...

A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel …

Integrated Battery Scrap Recycling and Nickel Slag ...

Mar 20, 2017· Processing of PGM Containing Ni/Cu Bulk Concentrates in a Sustainable Way by Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process. Ni-Co 2013, pp.325-334. Journal. Ma¨kinen, T. and Taskinen, P. State of the art in nickel smelting: direct Outokumpu nickel technology

Processing of PGM containing Ni/Cu bulk concentrates in a ...

Nov 13, 2019· Slag chemistry of the direct nickel matte smelting was studied in typical industrial high-grade nickel matte smelting conditions at 1400 °C and 0.1 atm pSO2. The experimental technique used involved equilibration, quenching and direct elemental phase composition analysis by Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis. Magnesia and potassia, a typical gangue constituent of sulfidic nickel …

What Is Nickel Smelting? (with picture)

Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Outotec® Direct Nickel Flash Smelting Process is a continuous Flash Smelting operation for nickel production, eliminating the need for ... Get Quote Nickel - …

Flash smelting - Wikipedia

Jul 18, 2013· AbstractOxygen-activity measurements and sampling for chemical assay were carried out in a nickel flash smelting furnace and slag-cleaning electric furnace during industrial operation. In the primary Direct Outokumpu Nickel (DON) smelting furnace, which produces high-grade nickel matte, the oxygen activity and chemical compositions of the slag and matte …

direct nickel flash smelting - courage-epreuve.be

Feb 03, 2011· Older nickel-smelting processes, such as blast or reverberatory furnaces, no longer are acceptable because of low-energy efficiencies and environmental concerns. In flash smelting, dry sulfide ore containing less than 1% moisture is fed to the furnace along with preheated air, oxygen-enriched air (30–40% oxygen), or pure oxygen.

Impact of MgO and K 2 O on Slag-Nickel Matte Equilibria ...

The flash smelting method has been un-der continuous development over the years, and is today the most widely used smelting method for copper concentrates in the world. Ten years later, the smelter in Harjavalta was also the first in the world to begin flash smelting nickel …

The distribution of trace elements in nickel flash smelting

Perhaps the most successful direct lead smelting alternative is the Russian Kivcet process. This continuous process uses a vertical flash smelting shaft for first-stage combustion. Some coke is also added in the shaft to form a coke filter that floats on the molten bath, so that slag from this stage is substantially reduced at about 1300 °C.

Nickel Mining - Fluor Engineering, Procurement ...

flash smelting. Flash smelting is the most common process but electric smelting is used for more complex raw materials when increased flexibility is needed. Both processes use dried concentrates. Electric smelting requires a roasting step ahead of the smelter to reduce sulfur content and volatiles. Older nickel smelting processes, such as blast or

The Direct Outokumpu Nickel Smelting (DON) Process and the ...

Flash smelting (Finnish: Liekkisulatus, literally "flame-smelting") is a smelting process for sulfur-containing ores including chalcopyrite.The process was developed by Outokumpu in Finland and first applied at the Harjavalta plant in 1949 for smelting copper ore. It has also been adapted for nickel and lead production.. A second flash smelting system was developed by the International Nickel ...

Oxygen pressure in the Outokumpu flash smelting furnace ...

Nickel Mining includes flash and electric smelting methods for the production of nickel. ... Smelting a nickel sulfide flotation deliberate needs an MgO echelon of 6% otherwise the warmth at which the smelting will be scuttle at will be too towering and guide to superior operating prices. ... The direct conversion of nickel sulfide to the metal ...

Flash Smelting - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Producing bulk concentrates and treating them by Outotec Direct Nickel Flash Smelting (DON) to matte and then hydrometallurgical refining, offers a reliable route from concentrate to product. In the DON process high grade matte with low Fe-content is produced in the Flash smelting furnace (FSF) and metal values in slag are recovered in an ...

State of the art in nickel smelting: Direct Outokumpu ...

Nov 13, 2019· Slag chemistry of the direct nickel matte smelting was studied in typical industrial high-grade nickel matte smelting conditions at 1400 °C and 0.1 atm pSO2. The experimental technique used involved equilibration, quenching and direct elemental phase composition analysis by Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis. Magnesia and potassia, a typical gangue constituent of sulfidic nickel …

Flash smelting - Wikipedia

Sep 09, 2020· Alex Newth Last Modified Date: September 09, 2020 . Nickel smelting is the process that nickel ore goes through to eventually remove impurities and leave just the nickel metal. While the ores can come from different stones and sources, they have two categories: lateritic, or rocks found in tropical climates and which contain nickel; and sulfidic ore, which is …

direct nickel flash smelting - courage-epreuve.be

Nickel 1 Sulfur dioxide 2 kg/t sulfuric acid. Table 2. Effluents from Nickel Smelting (milligrams per liter, except for pH) Parameter Maximum value pH 6–9 TSS 50 Nickel 0.5 Iron 3.5 Total metals 10. Note: Effluent requirements are for direct discharge to surface waters.


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